saar coal mine
km., shows a density of 370 persons per sq. All the rights and duties of the former proprietors towards their employees and workmen were assumed by France, who was also free to use French currency in all its transactions within the zone. On June 2012, the last of the coal mines operating in the Saarland region in west Germany closed, marking the end of a 250-year history of mining in the region. The region's name was finalized on 11 March 1941 as Westmark, meaning "Western March" or "Western Boundary," with its governor styled as Reichsstatthalter in der Westmark, "Imperial Governor in the Western March." France has become sole owner of all the fields and of all mining concessions. In 2006, the mine produced 3.6 million tvF which was the best result ever. There are a number of works producing machines and machine tools, so that after coal the iron and steel trades rank as second in importance. The Territory issued its own postage stamps and currency (the Saar franc). The regime agreed upon is laid out in an annexe which follows Article 50. The details of this plebiscite were to be settled by the League of Nations. It then flows through the territory to a point just downstream from Mettlach. [9] Its members did not enjoy immunity. Paragraph 16-17, Chapter II, Annex to Article 45-50, Treaty of Versailles. The geographical situation of the coal-mines in the neighbourhood of Saarbruck clearly pointed to their utilization for this purpose. These powers, for the use of which the commission is responsible to the League of Nations, are subject to several restrictions. Description. La Houve, 20th century Fosse Sainte-Marte built in 1848 Fosse Folschviller 1 It is responsible for public order; the safety of the inhabitants of the district, and their representation abroad; it manages the railways and looks after all public property. On June 2012, the last of the coal mines operating in the Saarland region in west Germany closed, marking the end of a 250-year history of mining in the region. Under the Treaty of Versailles, the highly industrialized Saar Basin, including the Saar Coal District (German: Saarrevier), was to be occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France under a League of Nationsmandate for a period of fifteen years. The League of Nations was to fix the new frontiers, if any, in accordance with the results of the plebiscite. First of all, they cannot affect the rights of the French State in its capacity as owner of the mines, and no restriction can be placed upon the circulation of French money. The Kohlwald mine was abandoned in 1966. The Treaty in no way affects the existing nationality of the inhabitants. It had its own flag (adopted on July 28, 1920): a blue, white, and black horizontal tricolour. France was empowered to build any railways or canals which she might deem necessary in order to link up the fields with France. [3] The territory closely corresponds with the modern German state of Saarland, but was slightly smaller in area. In order to get over this difficulty, and to ensure to France the free disposal of Saar coal, the territory of the Saar was completely detached from the German State, both from a political as well as from an administrative point of view. Currently, the mine is extracting coal from the Wahlschied seam. The shape of ‘The Polygon’ itself vaguely resembles the supporting structures that have been used in underground mining. The rest is exported to AlsaceLorraine, France and Southern Germany. Due to its exposed location, the polygon is visible from all around the valley. It is presided over by one of its number, appointed by the League of Nations. Men and women over 20 years of age have the right to vote for the local assemblies., Germany articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 September 2019, at 12:42. (incl. After World War II, a French protectorate was established within borders similar to those of the Territory. Shafts Anna I-IV are known. With this situation, all the representatives elected to the Regional Council, regardless of the party, opposed the system of autocratic rule in the Saar Territory. The value of the mines thus ceded was to be credited to Germany in the Reparations Accounts. The Saarland was not a region that had any notable cohesion or historical role before World War I. km. They gave to the Saar the means of protecting its own interests, and at the same time spared it the burdens and worries which are the common fate of all great states. However, as most of the region's population was German, the mandate was unpopular. Designed by Berlin architect Katja Pfeiffer and Oliver Sachse, the walk-in monument consist of two slanting towers connected by a bridge. The price was to be fixed by experts and to be payable in gold. Buy Online Access  Buy Print & Archive Subscription. Weltkrieg", on: "Saarland: Heads of Administration: 1920–1935", "Die Anfänge der Sozialdemokratie an der Saar", "Nansen International Office for Refugees", Saarland in the page about Germany on, Part III - Political Clauses for Europe, Treaty of Versailles,, States and territories established in 1920, States and territories disestablished in 1935, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 September 2020, at 09:21. © Copyright 2020 History Today Ltd. Company no. This study presents the This region, thanks to its large coal output, had ever since 1871 been in close relations with the coal-mines of Metz and Thionville. This could not have been effected had the district remained under the authority of the German Government. - Please bookmark this page (add it to your favorites) [8] In June 1922 the Governing Commission held the first election of the Regional Council, and starting with the second election of the Regional Council the legislation period was extended from three to four years, with elections in 1928, and in 1932. The big metallurgical establishments of Lorraine were largely dependent upon coal from the Valley of the Saar, from which the new French frontier would have cut them off, to the detriment of the economic development of both countries. - Steps had to be taken to provide the dis trict with administration and government, France, apart from the mines, being concerned only with Customs. Abstract Coal mining in the Lorraine-Saar basin started in the nineteenth century. Detailed information about the coin 50 centimes Mines Domaniales de la Sarre (type 1920), Saar, with pictures and collection and swap management : mintage, descriptions, metal, weight, size, value and other numismatic data 1556332. Client. From a religious point of view Catholics are in a considerable majority, although there is a fairly strong group of Protestants at Saarbruck. ", After the Battle of France, the re-annexed territory of the CdZ-Gebiet Lothringen was incorporated in the Reichsgau. First, the permanent maintenance of the system of government provided for in the Treaty - that is to say, autonomous government under the agis of the League of Nations; second, reunion with France; third, reunion with Germany. The announcement called into question DSK’s plans, unveiled in 2005, to develop a new underground mine, … Political Regime. On the other hand, France had been deprived of a large portion of her output by the destruction of her northern coalfields, a situation which had as far as possible to be remedied by Germany. pits) and an overall mining claim of 85 sqkm. Copyright © 2018 ITA all rights reserved. If the Peace Treaty regime were continued, or if the voting went for reunion with France, there would be no further difficulty; but if all or part of the coal-fields returned to Germany, Germany would have to buy out the interests of the French State in the fields which Germany would then reoccupy. It is very dense in the industrial regions, in the valley around mineheads, and wherever factories have been built. On the French side, mining ceased in 2004 after 150 years of activity, and as a consequence, the French coal mines got progressively flooded. 2 x 1,700tph Stackers onto 250,000 tonne stock pile. Cf. Output fell off during the war, as the result of fewer working hours and less productive labour. Luffing boom, long traveling with offset yard conveyors and tripper on shared rails. A referendum was held on 23 October 1955 which ended French rule and influence. Kohlwald Mine, Wiebelskirchen, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany : Old coal mine. On 1 March, Germany re-integrated the region into the German Reich, appointing Josef Bürckel as Reichskommissar für die Rückgliederung des Saarlandes, "Reich Commissioner for the reincorporation of the Saarland.". It stipulates that the governing commission shall be the last judge of any dispute arising from the interpretation of the Treaty itself. This commission is appointed yearly by the League of Nations, which may renew expiring mandates. The commission maintains in force the laws and regulations passed previous to the Armistice, with the exception of special war measures. Mine A third option of joining France received 0.4% of the vote. The Territory of the Saar Basin (German: Saarbeckengebiet, Saarterritorium;[1] French: Territoire du bassin de la Sarre) was a region of Germany occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate. During this time, the Saar Territory was governed by the five-person Governing Commission (German: Regierungskommission; abbreviated Reko) made up of representatives of the occupation forces. Four years later, a 30-meter-tall structure called ‘The Polygon’ was erected on Bergehalde Ensdorf, one of the biggest slag heaps on Saarland, that rises some 150 meters above the surrounding Saar Valley. The coal is not very satisfactory for the purposes of steel manufacture, and has to be mixed with coal from the Ruhr before it produces good coke. The regime thus formed does not establish a state of the Saar, similar to that of Luxemburg, since no new nationality is formed, and since the League of Nations is only acting as trustee. Transfer to France of the mines being worked was made comparatively easy by the fact that nearly all the concessions belonged to the State of Prussia or to Bavaria. [5][7] So on 24 March 1922, after four years without any official representation of the people, the Reko decreed the formation of a Saar Territory assembly called the Regional Council (German: Landesrat). Under … of Metz, and 90 km. As the new Gau was extended to the Rhine, including the Bavarian district of Palatinate, the region's name was changed again on 8 April 1940 to Saarpfalz, "Saar-Palatinate. Its coalfields were also to be ceded to France. Machine Name. Initially, the occupation was under the auspices of the Treaty of Versailles. The blue and white stood for Bavaria, and white and black for Prussia, out of whose lands the Saar Territory was formed. To continue reading this article you will need to purchase access to the online archive. The chief industry, and the only one mentioned in the Peace Treaty, is the extraction of coal. Many opponents of Nazism who had taken refuge in the territory and former politicians and office holders of the Saar who had collaborated with the occupation were imprisoned. Nevertheless, and although Saarbruck had belonged to France from 1794 to 1815, the French annexation of this country was difficult without running a risk of violating the inhabitants' right of self-determination.


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